Desai Nisarg R, Kavindra K Kesari and Ashok Agarwa
Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system: Review
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 2009 Aug 13, 7:114
Nisarg R Desai, Kavindra K Kesari and Ashok Agarwal
Center for Reproductive Medicine, Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute and Obstetrics and Gynecology and Women's Health Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
Department of Internal Medicine, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, New York, USA
School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
We have reviewed the literature to better understand the effects of cell phone radiation on human health, especially on fertility and in relation to cancer. Commercially available cellular phones might affect cell function via non-thermal effects. We hypothesized that the plasma membrane might be the target of cell phone radiation. RF-EMW can increase ROS formation by increasing the activity of plasma membrane NADH oxidase. Prolonged exposure to RF-EMW can also cause DNA damage (by prolonged OS), which may accelerates neuronal and spermatozoal cell death and promote neurodegenerative processes as well as promote brain and testicular carcinogenesis. Any tumor promoting effects of RF-EMW might be due to the effect it has on PKC, ODC, intra cellular calcium spikes and stimulation of stress kinase. Stimulation of plasma membrane NADH oxidase might play central role in above mentioned effects.
OS and changes in PKC activity might lead to the RF-EMW related infertility observed in numerous studies. Hence, RF-EMW from commercially available cell phones might affect the fertilizing potential of spermatozoa. Therefore, the SAR limit (maximum acceptable exposure limit) should be lowered for cellular phones. However, more studies are necessary to provide definitive evidence against cell phone radiation, which can be provided by in vitro studies combined with computational biomodeling.
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